The global distribution of cold environments – polar (land and marine based), alpine, glacial and periglacial.
Glaciers as systems – glacial budgets and Ice movement - internal deformation, rotational, compressional, extensional and basal sliding; warm and cold based glaciers.
Fluvioglacial processes – the role of melt water erosion and deposition.
Fluvioglacial landforms – melt water channels, kames, eskers and outwash plains.
Periglacial processes – nivation, permafrost formation, frost heave, solifluction.
Periglacial landforms – nivation hollows, ice wedges, patterned ground, pingos and solifluction lobes.