Mount Pinatubo - the impacts of a volcanic eruption in an LEDC
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the Island of Luzon in the Philippines in South East Asia lies the volcano
Mount Pinatubo. It is located at the plate boundary between to the
Eurasian and Philippine Plate. It is
one of a chain of volcanoes known as the Luzon volcanic arc, which is the
result of the Oceanic Philippine plate being
subducted under the lighter Continental Eurasian plate. The
Volcano is slightly offset from the plate boundary as, when the Oceanic
subducted it is melted and forced away as molten
magma by the high pressures exerted on it. It then resurfaces as the density
of the molten magma becomes lower than that of the rock, and so it pushes it
up through the small cracks and explodes out through a volcano.
exploded in 1991 and had some catastrophic effects, both for the people of
the Philippines and the USA air force at Clarke airbase.
Think about it
case study notes
site on Mount Pinatubo - look at pages 2 and 3
Sulphur Dioxide cloud disperse on this movie
Attempt the Venn diagram exercise
• 847 People Killed - 300 from collapsing roofs ,
100 from the mud flows known as lahars, the rest from disease in the evacuation
centres including measles.
• 650,000 workers lost jobs
• $700 Million Damages
• 1.2million people lost homes
Electricity went off, water was contaminated, road links were
destroyed, and telephone links were cut
58,000people had to be evacuated from a 30km radius of the
Houses and bridges destroyed and needed replacing and
Manila airport had to be closed
Volcanic ash is blown in all directions over hundreds of KMs,
smothering fields and buildings.
847 people lost their lives, 300 killed by collapsing roofs and
100 by lahars.
Heavy rainfall from Typhoon Yunga causes buildings to collapse.
Fast flowing volcanic mudflows (lahars) cause sever river bank
erosion, undercut bridges etc.
1.2 million people lost their homes around the volcano and had
to migrate to shanty towns in Manila .
Farmland destroyed by falling ash and pumice, unusable for
years, the 1991 harvest was destroyed and 650,000 people lost their jobs
Global cooling caused by ash in the atmosphere of 0.5 °C
Mt Pinatubo Crater in Philippines
The management attempted
Prediction, Prevention, Aid and Monitoring
What they actually did
75,000 people were evacuated due to accurate predictions. There
was no monitoring until the 3rd of April but seismometers were put into
The United States Geological Service helped to predict the
75,000 people evacuated up to a radius of 30km. USA air
force helicopters helped.
Alert systems put into place to warn of eruption.
Evacuation camps built for refugees.
Warning sign like gas and steam looked for. Long and short term
aid organized especially from the Red Cross and the United States
What they could have done
Set up permanent monitoring points or use satellite images to look upon volcano site for
changes in land surface.
Placed strategies for long term aid and disease control in
evacuations prepared for.
Storage of medical supplies food
water in preparation for disaster.
Explosion at Clark Air Base
Explosion at Clark Air Base part 2
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