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World Cities Get the reading sheets here

The global pattern: millionaire cities, mega cities and world cities.

Economic development and change related to urbanisation.

Contemporary urbanisation processes

Urbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.

Suburbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.

Counter-urbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.

Re-urbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.

Planning and management issues for contrasting case studies - Mumbai      Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Urban decline and regeneration within urban areas

Characteristics and causes of urban decline.

Urban regeneration: gentrification, property-led regeneration schemes, partnership schemes between local and national governments and the private sector. Covered in the Newcastle case study.

Retailing and other services

The decentralisation of retailing and other services causes and impacts.

Retailing case study - The Metro centre

The redevelopment of urban centres impacts and responses, including one case study of an urban centre that has undergone redevelopment. Covered by Grainger Town

Contemporary sustainability issues in urban areas

Waste management: recycling and its alternatives.

Transport and its management: the development of integrated, efficient and sustainable systems.

CASE STUDY - Curitiba Sustainable City