The global pattern: millionaire cities, mega cities and world cities.
Contemporary urbanisation processes
Urbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.
Suburbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.
Counter-urbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.
Re-urbanisation: characteristics, causes and effects.
Urban decline and regeneration within urban areas
Urban regeneration: gentrification, property-led regeneration schemes, partnership schemes between local and national governments and the private sector. Covered in the Newcastle case study.
Retailing and other services
The redevelopment of urban centres – impacts and responses, includingone case study of an urban centre that has undergone redevelopment. Covered by Grainger Town
Contemporary sustainability issues in urban areas
Transport and its management: the development of integrated, efficient and sustainable systems.